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SCIENCE
 

University students find a cluster in space so unique, it has no name

The densest galaxy in the nearby universe may have been found. Known as M60-UCD1, the galaxy is located near a massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4649, also called M60, about 54 million light years from Earth. Aaron Romanowsky from San Jose State University was one of the authors of the study. Photo: NASA/CXC/MSU/J.Strader/STScI

SAN JOSE, Calif. — A San Jose State undergrad has made what could prove to be a remarkable discovery: a system of stars so dense, his professor said, astronomy has no word for it.

After only a week of looking, 21-year-old Michael Sandoval stumbled upon what he and his professor have named a hypercompact cluster. They argue it is the intensely starry remains of one galaxy that has been consumed by another.

Astrophysics professor Aaron Romanowsky said it’s astounding how quickly his student discovered what “some people take years (looking for) and never find.”

Searching Was A Good Distraction

The stellar search was a welcome distraction for Sandoval, whose mother, Holly Houser, died of cancer in October. In the last years of his mom’s life, the physics major lived at home, juggling her care with his education, sometimes rushing her to the emergency room at night and dragging himself to class the next day.

Months later, enrolled in his first astrophysics course, he learned classmate Richard Vo had discovered an unusual stellar object — possibly the densest ever found.

His reaction was immediate: “I want to find one too.”

With free, publicly available data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Sandoval set to work on his laptop, combing the universe using some of Vo’s research methods. “I didn’t want to be sitting home, feeling sorry for myself,” said Sandoval, the younger of two brothers who both took care of their mother after she became ill. “That’s not what she would have wanted anyway.”

Instead, he and Vo are rushing to publish their findings with Romanowsky.

It Looked Weird At First

Romanowsky was on a team of astronomers from a number of universities that was among the first to discover a dense galaxy like the one Vo found: an ultracompact dwarf galaxy. They published their findings in The Astrophysical Journal in September.

But Sandoval’s search for a similar object turned up something “weird,” Romanowsky said, unlike anything he had seen.

If a dwarf galaxy is like an apple core, Romanowsky said, what Sandoval found is like the seeds.

They are keeping the names and locations of both findings secret until they have been published.

Their discoveries reveal what’s possible today in undergraduate science education, Romanowsky said. More than ever, major discoveries can come out of universities like San Jose State that don’t have fancy equipment or massive research budgets.

Hide And Seek Out In The Open

One reason a pair of undergraduates might have pulled off this feat is that until recently, astronomers simply weren’t looking for these dense stellar systems.

“It’s something that’s been hiding in plain sight,” Romanowsky said.

If verified, their research could lead to breakthroughs in our understanding of the universe — and of the black holes within galaxies, which have a gravitational pull so powerful they are thought to trap light, making them difficult to spot.

Both students were so passionate about the project, Romanowsky said, that they were pushing him, not the other way around. “They’re sending me emails at midnight: ‘Professor, will you send me more data?’” he said.

Experiences like theirs could bring more students into the sciences, said Natalie Batalha, a research astronomer at NASA Ames Research Center. Glimpsing something no human has ever seen feels like “all the mysteries of the universe are right there for us to discover,” she said.

“Not very many young people are choosing to pursue scientific careers,” she added. “I wonder how much of that is because of stereotypes and a poor understanding of what it means to be a scientist.”

Not Your Typical Scientists

Between his forearm tattoos and outspoken, boyish sense of humor, Vo certainly doesn't fit the image of the boring scientist. Recalling the start of his research project, he described the task ahead of him then as “basically finding Waldo.”

The youngest of 10 children of Vietnamese immigrants, Vo graduated from San Jose State on Saturday with a physics degree. He hopes to continue his research at San Francisco State.

For Sandoval, the astronomical discovery makes him think of his mom. It always embarrassed him when she bragged about his physics studies, he said, because he felt he had done nothing special.

“After this has happened,” he said, “I’m pretty sure she’s proud.”

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1
Standard 2: Central Idea

Select the sentence that provides the BEST summary of the article.

A

Two San Jose State students looking for dense groups of galaxies have made several important finds.

B

The joy of studying astronomy has helped two San Jose State students overcome personal challenges.

C

Two San Jose State students looking for dense groups of stars have made important finds.

D

The joy of studying astronomy has helped two San Jose State students overcome age discrimination.

2
Standard 2: Central Idea

Select the sentence that would be LEAST appropriate to include in a summary of the article.

A

After only a week of looking, 21-year-old Michael Sandoval stumbled upon what he and his professor have named a hypercompact cluster.

B

Months later, enrolled in his first astrophysics course, he learned classmate Richard Vo had discovered an unusual stellar object — possibly the densest ever found.

C

Romanowsky was on a team of astronomers from a number of universities that was among the first to discover a dense galaxy like the one Vo found: an ultracompact dwarf galaxy.

D

The youngest of 10 children of Vietnamese immigrants, Vo graduated from San Jose State on Saturday with a physics degree.

3
Standard 3: People, Events & Ideas

In the section “It Looked Weird At First” select the paragraph that uses a simile to describe Sandoval’s finding.

4
Standard 3: People, Events & Ideas

Select the sentence that BEST illustrates the roles of the researchers highlighted in the article.

A

After only a week of looking, 21-year-old Michael Sandoval stumbled upon what he and his professor have named a hypercompact cluster.

B

Astrophysics professor Aaron Romanowsky said it’s astounding how quickly his student discovered what “some people take years (looking for) and never find.”

C

Experiences like theirs could bring more students into the sciences, said Natalie Batalha, a research astronomer at NASA Ames Research Center.

D

But Sandoval’s search for a similar object turned up something “weird,” Romanowsky said, unlike anything he had seen.

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