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McDonald's move to cage-free eggs seen as tipping point for industry

Third-generation farmer Frank Hilliker checks on his 8,000 Leghorn chickens in a cage-free aviary system barn at Hilliker's Ranch Fresh Eggs, a family business since 1942, in Lakeview, California, Dec. 19, 2014.
Third-generation farmer Frank Hilliker checks on his 8,000 Leghorn chickens in a cage-free aviary system barn at Hilliker's Ranch Fresh Eggs, a family business since 1942, in Lakeview, California, Dec. 19, 2014. Allen J. Schaben/Los Angeles Times/TNS

Will the next egg you eat come from a chicken raised in a roomier barn?

Foodies and farmers are in unusual agreement on the answer: If not now, then soon enough.

Both say the recent decision by McDonald's to switch to “cage-free” eggs for its McMuffins and other menu items was a tipping point for the $9 billion egg industry. Right now, egg companies still produce 96 percent of eggs in barns full of stacked wire cages.

McDonald's buys 2 billion eggs, which makes it hard to ignore. Many other companies have also made a similar switch, including the top three companies that supply cafeterias, and fast-food competitors Burger King, Dunkin’ Donuts and Starbucks.

Six States Require More Space For Hens

Since California passed a measure requiring more space for egg-laying hens in 2008, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Michigan and Ohio have enacted laws regulating hen housing.

“The McDonald’s announcement really settles the debate as to whether there will be a future for cage confinement in the egg industry — the answer is no, there won’t be,” said Paul Shapiro, vice president of farm animal protection for the Humane Society of the U.S. “How quickly that will happen is now the real question.”

Ken Klippen, head of the National Association of Egg Farmers, agrees, but isn’t exactly applauding the McDonald’s decision. He wrote a letter to the company, challenging its assertion that it’s more humane to give chickens more room. He also said that more manure may come into contact with eggs laid by hens that have access to floors.

“I agree. This is a tipping point,” Klippen said. “The egg farmers do want to respond to this because there is a segment of us that disagree with the merits behind that decision.”

Some Producers Already Expanded

Glenn Hickman, though, isn’t waiting to debate the merits. The Arizona-based egg producer responded to the announcement with plans to build a modern, 2-million-hen facility. Hickman, like other West Coast producers already in the California market, has been moving toward roomier enclosures since Proposition 2 passed in November 2008.

California’s Proposition 2, which took full effect in January, doesn’t specify how big the enclosure has to be. It requires that hens have the ability to turn around freely, lie down, stand up and fully extend their limbs. The California Department of Food and Agriculture has since issued a rule requiring about 116 square inches per bird.

A 2010 law expanded Proposition 2 to apply to all eggs sold in the state, which consumes roughly twice as many eggs as it produces.

Before the law passed, Hickman housed several million chickens in the stacked wire enclosures known as battery cages. The cages leave each bird with less space than a sheet of photocopy paper.

New Enclosures Cost More

By December, 4 million of his projected 10 million laying hens will live in more spacious “enriched” enclosures. These enclosures have perches, scratch areas and private areas to lay eggs.

“When it comes to harvesting an egg, whether the chicken can fly up or down or scratch or perch really doesn’t upset the production of the egg,” Hickman said. “As long as we can convince the consumer that those things cost a little bit extra but they’re worth it — and we can sell the eggs for a profit — we’re happy to do so.”

Large-scale egg producers in the Midwest also have shifted production. Indiana-based Rose Acre Farms Inc., with about 25 million hens, has committed to switching to more ample enriched environments in any new barn construction.

Price Of Eggs Rises In California

The shift has driven up costs and widened the difference between wholesale prices in California and other markets, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The gap between California and New York, for example, rose to $1 a dozen in January, from a 12-cent difference in October 2014, according to the USDA.

This week, the average wholesale price for a dozen white, large eggs hovered around $2.40 in California, up by $1.26 from this time last year, according to the USDA. The nationwide average was $1.78, up about 82 cents from the same period last year, according to the department.

Much of the recent price escalation has been attributed to outbreaks of avian influenza, or bird flu, this spring, which wiped out more than 42 million laying hens in the U.S. Midwest.

The egg industry has warned of price shocks due to the cage-free craze. San Diego egg farmer Frank Hilliker, for example, said he lost several customers after he made the switch, among them a discount grocer who had bought about $4,000 worth of eggs each week.

Egg Industry Resists New Regulations

Klippen said the egg industry will fight efforts to extend cage-free regulations. He publicly scolded McDonald’s after its Sept. 9 announcement: “You may congratulate yourselves on this new policy, and animal activists will mark their score cards as accomplishing another defeat for egg farmers,” he wrote. “The egg farmers themselves are wondering why anyone would want to revert to the former ways of producing eggs that was more stressful for the chicken and may compromise the quality and food safety of the eggs for their consumers.”

Klippen said McDonald’s bowed to “a small group of consumers, who are sort of the animal activists.”

But neither Hickman nor Hilliker is turning back any time soon.

“It’s been a challenge going cage-free, but it’s reinvigorated me, as a farmer,” Hilliker said. When he goes into his barns on a given morning, Hilliker said, “I’ll look, and say, oh my God, I can’t believe I did this — and survived. And I’m building the next one.”

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1
Anchor 1: What the Text Says

Which sentence from the article describes the conditions in which hens lived before the new rules in California?

A

Since California passed a measure requiring more space for egg-laying hens in 2008, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Michigan and Ohio have enacted laws regulating hen housing.

B

He also said that more manure may come into contact with eggs laid by hens that have access to floors.

C

The cages leave each bird with less space than a sheet of photocopy paper.

D

These enclosures have perches, scratch areas and private areas to lay eggs.

2
Anchor 1: What the Text Says

Read this sentence from paragraph 4.

McDonald's buys 2 billion eggs, which makes it hard to ignore.

Which sentence from the article describes how a state could have a similar influence?

A

California’s Proposition 2, which took full effect in January, doesn’t specify how big the enclosure has to be.

B

A 2010 law expanded Proposition 2 to apply to all eggs sold in the state, which consumes roughly twice as many eggs as it produces.

C

Indiana-based Rose Acre Farms Inc., with about 25 million hens, has committed to switching to more ample enriched environments in any new barn construction.

D

The gap between California and New York, for example, rose to $1 a dozen in January, from a 12-cent difference in October 2014, according to the USDA.

3
Anchor 2: Central Idea

Which sentence from the article is MOST relevant to the effects of the decision by McDonald's?

A

Glenn Hickman, though, isn’t waiting to debate the merits. The Arizona-based egg producer responded to the announcement with plans to build a modern, 2-million-hen facility.

B

The California Department of Food and Agriculture has since issued a rule requiring about 116 square inches per bird.

C

Before the law passed, Hickman housed several million chickens in the stacked wire enclosures known as battery cages.

D

“It’s been a challenge going cage-free, but it’s reinvigorated me, as a farmer,” Hilliker said.

4
Anchor 2: Central Idea

Which selection from the article is LEAST important to include in a summary?

A

Since California passed a measure requiring more space for egg-laying hens in 2008, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Michigan and Ohio have enacted laws regulating hen housing.

B

A 2010 law expanded Proposition 2 to apply to all eggs sold in the state, which consumes roughly twice as many eggs as it produces.

C

Large-scale egg producers in the Midwest also have shifted production. Indiana-based Rose Acre Farms Inc., with about 25 million hens, has committed to switching to more ample enriched environments in any new barn construction.

D

Much of the recent price escalation has been attributed to outbreaks of avian influenza, or bird flu, this spring, which wiped out more than 42 million laying hens in the U.S. Midwest.

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